Dataserver, Physical Schema, Logical Schema & Context | Oracle Data Integrator 11g

Dataserver, Physical Schema, Logical Schema & Context | Oracle Data Integrator 11g

Folks,

In this blog we will explore some areas of ODI Topology Navigaor.

  • We will explore Dataserver, Physical Schema, Logical Schema & Context.
  • Relationship between Physical, Logical Schema & Context.

Regarding setup & configuration of Dataserver, Physical Schema, Logical Schema in ODI using Oracle Technology please refer below video.


Let’s explore Topology Navigator in detail.

topology section
Topology Navigator

In Topology Navigator we have ‘Physical Architecture‘ section where we define the physical connection details of any Instance ( either Oracle DB, SQL Server,  IBM DB2, PostgreSQL, MySQL etc.) or any file system.

What is Dataserver?

A ODI object that defines the physical connection to any database instance or any file system. It basically store the host, username & password related details of an instance.

To define any physical connection in ‘Physical Architecture‘, you have to create a Data Server. Just click on your desired technology in Physical Architecture & click on ‘ New Data Server’.

NEWDATASERVER
Physical Architecture

After that you have to provide instance details. In case of any Database instance provide host, user/password & JDBC details.

Database server new
Data Server: DS_ORACLE_DEV

JDBC Details in case of oracle database as instance:

JDBC details
JDBC Details Data Sever: Localhost

In case of any file. Just provide the folder path from where you pick raw files in interface.

file1
Data Server File Type

JDBC Details in case of file:

file2
JDBC Details File Type

Now after adding the Data-server, next step is to add the ‘Physical Schema‘ in Data-server.

What is Physical Schema?

Physical Schema represents the actual connection to the data source (any database instance or any file system).

ODI Physical Schema corresponds to a pair of schema:

  • Main Schema (Data) – In which ODI look for the source and target objects for the interfaces.
  • Work Schema – Generally used by ODI for staging purpose, here ODI create temporary data objects associated to the sources and targets. Example C$, I$, E$ tables. It is always preferred to create & use separate work schema.

To define any physical schema, go to Data Server you created and then just click on new ‘New Physical Schema’.

PS.png
New Physical Schema

After that you have to provide Schema Name & Work Schema name using drop down. It will show you all the schema present in selected data-server instance.

PS02
Physical Schema Configuration
  • RAW_SCHEMA – schema where my source/target tables lies.
  • ODI_WORK_SCHEMA – Created for ODI staging purpose.
ps03.PNG
Physical Schema – RAW_SCHEMA present in Dataserver DS_ORACLE_DEV

Now after adding the Physical Schema, next step is to create Logical Schema & Context.

What is Logical Schema & Context?

  • Logical schema represents the logical name associated to that source/target objext.
  • One logical schema can be associated with multiple physical schema along with context, i.e. one logical schema is associated with different physical schema using different context.

Create Context:

To add any new context, go to Context Section and then just click on new ‘New Context’.

contextContext 02

Create Logical Schema:

To define any logical schema in ‘Logical Architecture‘ . Just click on your desired technology & click on ‘New Logical Schema’.

LA

LS02
Add New Logical Schema

After that you have to provide the logical schema name & Physical Schema mapping with context.

LS03
Logical Schema

So in Dev Context, Logical Schema LS_RAW_SCHEMA is pointing to Physical Schema DS_ORACLE_DEV.RAW_SCHEMA.

It may be possible that in Test Context, Logical Schema LS_RAW_SCHEMA is pointing to different Physical Schema DS_ORACLE_TEST.RAW_SCHEMA.

lS_Context.PNG

Refer this video clip for better understanding of Logical Schema & Context relationship.


Thanks!

Happy Learning! Your feedback would be appreciated!

 

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Oracle SQL – Scenario Questions (Interview)

Oracle SQL – Scenario Questions (Interview)

Folks,

In this blog we will explore some latest Oracle SQL – Scenario questions for Interview!


Scenario 1:  

Select numeric & character values in separate columns using data present in single column.

Input Data – One column having both numeric & character values in it. See below sample data.

create table data (value varchar2(20));
insert into data values ('1');
insert into data values ('a');
insert into data values ('b');
insert into data values ('2');
insert into data values ('c');

 

Untitled.png

Output – Show numeric & character values in two separate columns using select query only. See below output.

output

Solution of Scenario 1:

Step 1: Separate the data values using REGEXP_LIKE & digit class [:digit:].

select  null as numeric_value, value as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[^[:digit:]]')
union all
select value as numeric_value, null as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[[:digit:]]')

Output of Step 1:

3.png

Step 2 – Remove null values from the data.

select nv.numeric_value, cv.character_value
from

( select  numeric_value , rownum rnum from
(select  null as numeric_value, value as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[^[:digit:]]')
union all
select value as numeric_value, null as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[[:digit:]]')
)
where numeric_value is not null ) nv 

full join 

(select  character_value , rownum rnum from
(select  null as numeric_value, value as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[^[:digit:]]')
union all
select value as numeric_value, null as character_value from data WHERE REGEXP_LIKE(value, '[[:digit:]]')
)
where character_value is not null ) cv

on nv.rnum=cv.rnum

Output Step 2:

4.png


Scenario 2:  

Print data on the basis of Even/Odd data present in Id Column.

Input Data – See below sample data.

create table data (ID number, value varchar2(20));
insert into data values (1,'A');
insert into data values (2,'B');
insert into data values (3,'C');
insert into data values (4,'D');
insert into data values (5,'E');
insert into data values (6,'F');
insert into data values (7,'G');
insert into data values (8,'H');
 

Untitled.png

Output Required: Suppose we have to print the Even ID – Values

output.png

Solution of Scenario 2:

Output 2.1:  – With null values

select decode(mod(id,2),0,value, null) as value from data ;

3.png

Output 2.2:  – Without null values

-- 1st way
select value from data where (mod(id,2))=0;
-- 2nd way
select value
  from data
where id in (
              select decode(mod(id,2),0,id,null) from data
            );

1

4.png

For Odd – Just change the decode condition, see below code.

-- Simple Way
select value from data where (mod(id,2))<>0;
-- Without Null Values
select value from data where id in ( select decode(mod(id,2),0,null,id) from data );

-- With Null Values
select decode(mod(id,2),0,null,value) as value from data ; 

1



Scenario 3: 

Fetch alternate data from table – Using Even/Odd rownum.

Suppose we have only one column in the table & we have to fetch alternate records using rowid & rownum concepts.

Input Data – 

create table data ( value varchar2(20));
insert into data values ('A');
insert into data values ('B');
insert into data values ('C');
insert into data values ('D');
insert into data values ('E');
insert into data values ('F');
insert into data values ('G');
insert into data values ('H');
 

Untitled.png

Solution of Scenario 3:

Simple way:-

SELECT value FROM
  (SELECT(mod(rownum,2)) AS rn,value FROM data
  ) WHERE rn=0;

For Even Rowid- 

-- Without Null Values
select value
  from data
where rowid in (
              select decode(mod(rownum,2),0,rowid, null)  from data
            );

-- With Null Values
 select decode(mod(rownum,2),0,value, null) as value from data ;

3

4

For Odd Rowid- 

Simple way:-

SELECT value FROM
  (SELECT(mod(rownum,2)) AS rn,value FROM data
  ) WHERE rn<>0;
 
-- Other way
-- Without Null Values
select value
  from data
where rowid in (
              select decode(mod(rownum,2),0, null,  rowid)  from data
            );

-- With Null Values
 select decode(mod(rownum,2),0, null,  value) as value from data ;

3.png


 

Scenario 4: 

Print like this using select query.


2 * 1 = 2
2 * 2 = 4
2 * 3 = 6
2 * 4 = 8
2 * 5 = 10
2 * 6 = 12
2 * 7 = 14
2 * 8 = 16
2 * 9 = 18
2 * 10 = 20

Solution of Scenario 4:

SELECT '2 * ' || rownum  || ' = ' || rownum *2 as t
  FROM DUAL
CONNECT BY rownum  <= 10

output.png


 

Scenario 5:

Print how many ‘e’ in ‘elephant’ using select query.

Solution

 

select length('elephant') - length(replace('elephant', 'e', '')) from dual;

--  case-insensitive matching.
SELECT REGEXP_COUNT ('Elephant', 'e', 1, 'i')
FROM dual;

--  case-sensitive matching.
SELECT REGEXP_COUNT ('Elephant', 'e', 1, 'c')
FROM dual;
 

Output – Using length & Replace

Untitled

Output – Using Regexp_count

4    3


 

Scenario 6:

create table data ( city varchar2(10), gender char(1) );
insert into data values ('Delhi','M');
insert into data values ('Delhi','F');
insert into data values ('Delhi','M');
insert into data values ('Delhi','M');
insert into data values ('Pune','F');
insert into data values ('Pune','M');
insert into data values ('Pune','F');
insert into data values ('Pune','F');
insert into data values ('Banglore','F');
insert into data values ('Banglore','F');
 

Input Data –                              Output Required –

Untitled.png output.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solution of Scenario 6 using CASE statement:

select
city,
Count ( case gender when 'M' then 1 end) as Male_Count,
Count ( case gender when 'F' then 1 end) as Female_Count,
Count(*) as Total_Count
from DATA
group by city;
 

 

3.png

Using Pivot-

with w_data as (SELECT * FROM
(
  SELECT city, gender
  FROM data
)
PIVOT
(
  count(gender)
  FOR gender IN ('M' as Male_Count , 'F' as Female_Count)
))
select city, Male_Count,Female_Count,Male_Count+Female_Count as Total_Count from w_data
;

 

Using Decode-

SELECT city,SUM(DECODE(gender, 'M', 1,0)) AS Male_Count,
       SUM(DECODE(gender, 'F', 1,0)) AS Female_Count,
       count(*) AS Total_Count
FROM   DATA
group by city;

Scenario 7:

See below data table. Update product_name ‘CAR’ with ‘BIKE’ & ‘BIKE’ with ‘CAR’ using single update statement.

create table data (Product_id number, Product_name char(1));
insert into data values (1,'CAR');
insert into data values (2,'BIKE');
insert into data values (3,'CAR');
insert into data values (4,'BIKE');
insert into data values (5,'CAR');
insert into data values (6,'BIKE');
insert into data values (7,'CAR');
insert into data values (8,'BIKE');
insert into data values (9,'CAR');
insert into data values (10,'BIKE');

Untitled.png

Solution of Scenario 7:

 

-- Using Decode Statement
update DATA
set product_name = decode (product_name,'CAR', 'BIKE','CAR')

-- Using Case Statement
update DATA
set product_name = ( case product_name
                          when 'CAR' then 'BIKE'
                          when 'BIKE' then 'CAR' END)
 

Scenario 8:

8.1) In ‘abcde12xys2254’ string, replace all numeric data with null.

select regexp_replace('abcde12xys2254', '[0-9]', '') from dual;
 

3.png

8.2) In ‘abcde12xys2254’ string, replace all character data with null.

select regexp_replace('abcde12xys2254', '[^0-9]', '') from dual;
 

4.png


Scenario 9: Binary Tree

Input:- See binary tree below

tree-1.jpg

  • Root Node: If node is root node. Which doesn’t have any parent node.
  • Leaf: If node is leaf node. Which doesn’t have any further child node.
  • Inner: If node is neither root nor leaf node.

Here we have a table, Data, containing two columns: Node and Parent_Node.

create table data (node number, parent_node number);

insert into data values (40,null);
insert into data values (10,20);
insert into data values (20,40);
insert into data values (30,20);
insert into data values (60,40);
insert into data values (50,60);
insert into data values (70,60);

treeee.JPG

Output Required:-

Query to display the node & node type of Binary Tree.

tre data    tree-1.jpg

 

Solution of Scenario 9:

SELECT Node ,
  CASE
    WHEN Parent_node IS NULL
    THEN 'Root'
    WHEN EXISTS
      (SELECT 1 FROM Data B WHERE B.Parent_Node=A.Node
      )
    THEN 'Inner'
    ELSE 'Leaf'
  END AS Node_Type
FROM Data A
ORDER BY 2 DESC;

 

Some more questions.

Question 10: Can we use where clause in case statement in SQL? or Vice-Versa Can we use case in where statement in SQL.?

Question 11: Can we use aggregate functions in update statement.

Question 12: Can two procedure in a package have the same name & input parameters differ only by datatype ?

Answer 12 : – Yes, this is possible. This is a concept of Overloading.

Overloading – Creating multiple procedures/functions of the same name in a package, having different numbers of arguments and / or where the arguments have different datatypes.

Create or replace PACKAGE PKG_TEST  AS 

   PROCEDURE PRC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2 );

   PROCEDURE PRC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN NUMBER );

END PKG_TEST;

Create or replace PACKAGE BODY PKG_TEST AS

PROCEDURE PRC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2)
IS 
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);

END PRC_SAMPLE;

PROCEDURE PRC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN NUMBER)
IS 
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);

END PRC_SAMPLE;

END PKG_TEST;

 

proc

 

Question 13: Can two standalone procedure have the same name. Only input parameters differ by datatype ?

Answer 13: – Yes, this is possible.


CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE SA_PRC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2)
IS 
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);

END SA_PRC_SAMPLE;

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE SA_PRC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN NUMBER)
IS 
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);

END SA_PRC_SAMPLE;

EXEC SA_PRC_SAMPLE(1);
EXEC SA_PRC_SAMPLE('1');

SA PRC.PNG

Question 14: Can 2 functions have the same name & input parameters differ only by datatype ?

Answer : Yes

create or replace PACKAGE PKG_TEST  AS 

   FUNCTION  FNC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN VARCHAR2 ;

   FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN NUMBER ) RETURN NUMBER ;

END PKG_TEST;

create or replace PACKAGE BODY PKG_TEST AS

FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2)
return VARCHAR2
IS 
 lv_id VARCHAR2(20);
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);
lv_id:= INPUT_ID;

return lv_id;

END FNC_SAMPLE;

FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN NUMBER)
return NUMBER
IS 
 lv_id NUMBER;
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);
lv_id:= INPUT_ID;

return lv_id;

END FNC_SAMPLE;
END PKG_TEST;

1

2

 

Question 15: Can 2 functions have the same name & same input parameters. Only return type differ by datatype ?

Answer: To overload a function, you must change the “signature” of the function, which is the defined by the position and datatype of the inputs. Return is not a part of the function signature, so it can’t be used for overloading.

 

I have created sample functions of same name, same parameters but different return type in package. Package Spec & Body compile successfully.  But it not work while calling function.


create or replace PACKAGE PKG_TEST  AS 

   FUNCTION  FNC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN VARCHAR2 ;

   FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE ( 
          INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2 ) RETURN NUMBER ;

END PKG_TEST;
/

create or replace PACKAGE BODY PKG_TEST AS

FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2)
return VARCHAR2
IS 
 lv_id VARCHAR2(20);
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);
lv_id:= INPUT_ID;

return lv_id;

END FNC_SAMPLE;

FUNCTION FNC_SAMPLE (INPUT_ID IN VARCHAR2)
return NUMBER
IS 
 lv_id NUMBER;
BEGIN
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Value of input Id is '|| INPUT_ID);
lv_id:= to_number(INPUT_ID);

return lv_id;

END FNC_SAMPLE;

END PKG_TEST;
/

 

func

 


If you have optimized answers for these scenarios, then please comment.

Thanks! Happy Learning! Your feedback would be appreciated!